Spinal cord perivascular cuffs of inflammatory leukocytes (red). Vascular basement membranes demarcated by laminin (green).

T cells (green) squeeze through blood-brain barrier endothelial cells (red).


Tight junction proteins in primary endothelial cells. Claudin-5 (green), ZO-1 (red), nuclei (blue).


Transendoethelial electrical resistance, a measure of TJ integrity, is decreased by inflammatory cytokines in primary brain endothelial cells.


Blood vessel tight junctions visualized by intravital microscopy in the eGFP:Claudin5 mouse spinal cord. 3-dimensional rendering in IMARIS.

Endothelial cell Wnt/b-catenin activation protects the neurovascular unit in the EAE model of multiple sclerosis. A) In the absence of Wnt signaling, neuroinflammation is exacerbated by elevated caveolar transcytosis and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. B) Wnt/β-catenin mediated transcription suppresses caveolar transcytosis and VCAM-1 expression, markedly reducing T cell infiltration into the CNS.


CD45 (green) leukocytes in the brain of mice with the EAE model of multiple sclerosis. Myelin (red).


Total internal reflection microscopy for time-lapse trafficking of endocytic vesicles in live cells


Blood-spinal cord barrier leakage as demonstrated by biocytin (red) extravasation around inflamed vasculature


Astrocyte gap junction proteins (Cx43, red) in the corpus callosum (myelin, green) and gray matter.